Kaakibat ang Buong Sambayanan

Nina: Hannah Jane Parrenas at Prima Stephaney Nadate

Isang mapagpalayang araw sa ating lahat! Maraming salamat sa inyong pagdalo at mainit na pagtanggap. Ako’y nagagalak na makitang napakaraming Pilipinong gaya ko rin ay nagmamalasakit sa bayan.

Magsisimula ako sa katanungang, “Nakikinita niyo pa ba ang Pilipinas na uunlad?” Marahil ang iba ay nawalan na ng pag-asa na makakamit ito pero sisikapin kong mapagtatagumpayang lahat ang ninanais ng buong sambayanan.

Hindi maikakailang kahirapan ang pangunahing problema na kinahaharap ng ating bansa, dahil katulad ninyo ay nasaksihan ko mismo at naranasan ang hagupit ng kahirapan. Noon, araw-araw ay sumusuong kami sa isang giyerang ito ang kalaban. Naranasan kong pagsabayin ang aking pag-aaral maging ang pag-trabaho. Ngunit hindi ito naging hadlang upang matamo ko kung ano ang mayroon ako ngayon. Ang nagpapanalo sa aming pamilya ay ang pagsisikap at higit sa lahat, ang pagkakaroon ng armas, ang edukasyon.

Kaya sisiguraduhin nating mabigyan ang lahat ng mga Pilipino ng armas na ito. Magpapatupad tayo ng batas na magbibigay-prayoridad sa edukasyon ng mamamayang Pilipino kagaya ng mga tulong pinansyal, hindi lang para sa mahihirap kundi maging sa mga nakaaangat din sa buhay. Lahat tayo ay may pantay-pantay na karapatan dito at hindi ito limitado sa kahit anong estado sa buhay. Isa ring mahalagang sangkap ang edukasyon sa kakulangan ng trabaho. Dagdag rito, sisiguraduhin nating magkaroon ng sapat na job vacancies para mabawasan ang mga unemployed at OFWs na nangingibang bansa. Isusulong din natin ang pagkilala sa LGBTQ++ community at magkakaroon ng mga panukalang magbibigay ng pantay-pantay na karapatan sa lahat ng kasarian o gender identity.

Dahil sa ating pagkakaisa, alam kong magagawan natin ng paraan ang mga problemang ito at makakamit din natin ang kaunlarang pare-pareho nating nilalayon para sa buong sambayanan. Ang inyong presensya ngayon ay tanda lamang ng pagmamalasakit sa ating bayan, at masasabi kong kayo, tayong mga Pilipino ay tunay ngang kahanga-hanga dahil dito. Muli, maraming salamat at mabuhay ang sambayanang Pilipino!

A Quick Peak into the Future of Technology and Communication

By: Keseiah Joy Tavera, Trina Villaflor, and Freden Javelona

Communication was first made through verbal interactions between individuals. The mumbling of sounds evolved into an organized system of syllables and speech. As humans learned to utter sounds, oral culture developed naturally. However, a system of writing was introduced and consequently, literacy bloomed. Crystal (2004) emphasized that a standard was set shifting orality to literacy through formal characters such as grammar, spelling, pronunciation and vocabulary. With this development and that of technology and screen media, visual and audio elements such as pictures, voice recordings, and videos arise to accompany textual information. This emergence of electronic devices, the internet, and everything thereafter paved the way towards networked communication from traditional mass communication as Kaul (2012) suggested.

With this trend, we can foresee that the future of human communication will be closely tied with technology. According to Brandom (2019), society today will soon approach a time where face-to-face communication happening virtually is fairly common. An application of this would be telemedicine technology, a software where consultation services from volunteer medical professionals are provided (The Virtual Doctors, 2019). In terms of entertainment, Interactive Storytelling would emerge as a virtual storybook with a different plot for every person depending on the in-story choices they made (Raab, 2019). 

The situation now appropriates the introduction of Brain-Computer Interfaces, devices that allow for our thoughts (in the form of electrical signals of neurons) to be encoded in a computer system (Abdulkader, Atia, & Mostafa, 2015). Although it is still a longshot from creating electronic based telepathy, BCI allows for brain-to-brain communication to happen as seen in James’s (2009) experiment. In 50 years, this technology could be a major platform in digital communication. This direct link between humans and computers is an example of fully embracing the importance and integration of technology in human society, culture, and communication.


Abdulkader, S. N., Atia, A., & Mostafa, M.-S. M. (2015). Brain computer interfacing: Applications and challenges. Egyptian Informatics Journal, 16(2), 213–230. doi: 10.1016/j.eij.2015.06.002

Crystal, D. (2004). The Stories of English. London:Penguin Books. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?q=http://newlearningonline.com/literacies/chapter-1/crystal-on-the-multiplicity-of-the-english-language&sa=D&ust=1567695342742000&usg=AFQjCNFE3k4cuhcPl4y_j79XawZevg2GZg

James, C. (2009). B2B – BrainToBrain: A BCI Experiment – May 2009. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93p7oDkA5WA&feature=email

Kaul, V. (2012). The Changing World of Media & Communication. Journal of Mass Communication and Journalism, 02(06). doi: 10.4172/2165-7912.1000116

Lacamp, D. M. (2019). Retrieved from The Virtual Doctors. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.virtualdoctors.org/about-us&sa=D&ust=1567695342743000&usg=AFQjCNEaI-_xpyXOsKsxciU33BHW-1Fdkw

Raab, M. (2019). Is ‘Interactive Storytelling’ the Future of Media? One Zero. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?q=https://onezero.medium.com/is-interactive-storytelling-the-future-of-media-df6de5138520&sa=D&ust=1567695342743000&usg=AFQjCNHyunLcSwiZVCti0S_nWQzB6gwF2g

The Verge. (2014). What is the future of communication [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcaCRqbxXME

The Advancements of Communication and Media in 50 years

by: Hazel Joy Nono and Myla Mae Pahamutang

Communication is one of the primary necessities of humans. Through it, we can obtain knowledge, express thoughts, and build relationships with other people. We, the people of the 21st century are blessed enough to have easier access to communication, however, this kind of privilege can’t be said about our ancestors before.

To communicate in the past was to spend a great deal of effort and money on mediums used to do such activity. However, due to societal developments, people eventually evolved from using non-verbal communication and smoke signals in 1800 BC to a writing system and a basic telecommunication process from 150 BC and 1876 respectively (Doyle, 2017).

Nowadays, communication is faster and easier than before. With the invention of different technologies, people would not even need to leave the comforts of their beds just to send messages. Almost all of the things we need to do can be done through various applications. There are already developed applications for food delivery, banking transactions, dating, books, shows, movies, and even online schools and markets for shopping.

In this kind of phasing and feedback from people, possibly more advanced apps and devices will be invented to provide more convenience.

With these, it is also not far from reality that people wouldn’t even give the effort to go outside to get things done. Print companies will slowly go bankrupt, restaurants, malls, banks, and other institutions will lessen as well because several researches state that people would rather choose the easiest and effortless way to do their day to day activities (Oaklander, 2015).

Indeed, communication is advanced compared to before but we should never let it take the essence of our humanity: to work hard for our goals and experience the different moments of our lives to the fullest with the people we cherish.


(Disclaimer: We do not own any of the photos shown. All credit for these photographs belong to their respective owners.)


Doyle, J.P. (2017). History of Communication Technology. Retrieved from: conferencecallsunlimited.com/history-of-communication-technology/

Oaklander, M. (2015). Here’s Proof that People Are Wired to be Lazy. Retrieved from: https://time.com/4027942/lazy-walking-exercise/

Orality and Literacy DISTINCTION, not metamorphosis

By Jence Carlo Servano and Ardeth Sinamban

Linguistics has been sounding a faint alarm. The human tongue and hand have been in quite a combat as millenials and traditionalists flag out their linguistic methods to be more effective than the other. Other intellects have even argued that writing has “changed” or “taken over” orality, and that it should be already, with what of the modern human intellect. However, Ferdinand de Saussure commented that: writing has “usefulness, shortcomings and dangers”, but he saw writing as a complement to verbal speech, not a transformer of it.

To really think about it though, it already seems pretty obvious that orality and literacy are different. According to Ong’s Orality and Literacy, there are roughly 3000 languages spoken today to which only 78 have a literature. Writing also extends word resources: English has more than 1.5million words, and most oral dialects have only several thousand words. In short, writing implies some orality in a culture, orality does not imply writing.

Orality was and is mainly used by the tradional oral cultures, and they depend mostly in their memories. They must invest greatly in repeating and memorizing which they arduously learned in years. Indeed to remember things one should established a high set of conservative mind. At the time writing was invented, it gave humans access to limitless memory. It’s not aiming to annihilate oral cultures but because it’s a human need. To know more and learn more. What’s written down, that idea can now last without being forgotten. No need of vivid repeating and memorizing, but making people learn new things faster and share more information without forgetting. With this, intellects and experts of the modern world have commended writing to be used by schools, millenials, and society of the modern world since it is proven to be significantly more convenient, appropriate, and advantageous compared to the acquirements or erudition of orality. However, there still are oral cultures who stood firm in their cultural linguistic ways of learning despite the “evolution” of the modern society.

To sum things up, even with how quite evident it is to see that writing is easier when it comes to studying, and that millenials and majority of the people in the world today do use literacy or writing over orality, that does not imply that it has totally taken over or metamorphosized orality. There are oral cultures still existing that keep faith to their traidtion linguistic method.



Ong, W. J., & Hartley, J. (2013). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group

Retrieved from https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http://neamathisi.com/literacies/chapter-1-literacies-on-a-human-scale/ong-on-the-differences-between-orality-and-literacy.com


ORALITY VS LITERACY : A Fight for Equality


By: Glannerry Kate Salarza and Reyban Sabordo


“No man is an island”

Perhaps, this is one of the most factual aphorisms I have encountered in my entire existence here on Earth. Indeed, no one and nothing could survive without the assistance of the other.

Now, how is this related to orality and literacy?

Throughout the years, these two cultures, oral and literate, have paved their way to get a spot in the realms of language and communication.

Orality, by definition, is a medium of language originated long before chirography was unraveled, whereas people communicate personally. Long ago, since there are no concrete basis or representations, the language our ancestors used was just merely vague sounds. In fact, it doesn’t matter even though they vary with the sounds as long as they understand each other. As a result of the face-to-face connection, conversations tend to be more additive, aggregative, redundant, conservative, close to the human world, agnostically-toned, empathetic and participatory, homeostatic, and situational, than usual.

Literacy, on the flip side, is one aid of connecting with other people in a chirographic demeanor. As years go by, humanity has learned and embraced the essence of communication through written letters, whereas they have come up with an idea to write all the things they want to say to the other person in a sheet of paper. However, in the fast-pacing world of today’s generation, technology has become powerful and influential to the people, especially the millennials. Today, technology has been a wide medium of communication. From letters, people can now communicate through text messaging, chat, e-mail, and the like. Through literate culture, conversations tend to be more analytic, copious, traditionalist, objectively distant, and abstract, compared to oral.

Though they vary in a lot of aspects, primary oral and literate culture have become “best buds” in the given field. Having being said that no one and nothing could succeed alone, we believe that orality and literacy are the support systems of each other. Thus, we do not consider orality as superior or inferior than literacy and vice versa. In lieu, we treat them just the same as a “win-win situation”. These two are interconnected cultures, meaning that they both are dependent with each other. Obviously, you cannot enjoy the zenith level of effectivity of each one by utilizing it individually. Orality and literacy may differ in model and medium of communication, but allowing them to work as one will be a perfect combo.

Hence, orality and literacy should be inseparable, and we should always bear in mind that every person or everything has its own unique trait. We are all different from each other, but that doesn’t mean that one is superior or inferior than the other. Never.




Ong, W. J. (1982). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. London: Methuen. Retrieved from: http://dss-edit.com/prof-anon/sound/library/Ong_orality_and_literacy.pdf

Photo References:

Croman, J. (2017). http://jakecroman.co/why-commitment-to-providing-equal-treatment-is-a-smart-business-move/



The Nature of Vlogs and Blogs

By: Joshua Steven C. Rose and Socorro Bay H. Sarabia

Professor Walter J. Ong’s book entitled “Orality and Literacy” delved into different factors that may have somehow changed our thought processes, personality, and social structures that resulted to the development of speech and writing. Moreover, the book explained the vast differences and similarities between oral cultures and literate cultures, and even the relationship of their orality and literacy.

Reflecting on what we have learned from Professor Ong, my partner and I thought that we can relate his concept to the emergence of vlogs and their association to blogs. To start with, we all know that a blog also known as “weblog” is a discussion and informational website wherein authors share their knowledge about any topic they desire. It can also be a form of journal or diary. Moreover, the author of a blog is known as a “blogger”. Similarly, a vlog stands for “video blog” which is an enhanced type of blog and is a major trend in the present time that gives the “vlogger” the opportunity to post videos in his/her website about almost anything under the sun to give entertainment, share information, create tutorials and etc.

Both blogs and vlogs have the same objective and that is to communicate to their audience. Same is true with orality and literacy. The only difference is that one form requires a physical presence to be able to be created. Furthermore, although most of the time the receiver of information in these types of media is indefinite and not present, it can still be considered that both approaches are intersubjective. It is because vloggers and bloggers could only come up with their posts’ content if they share a similar consciousness about a certain topic with their target audience. They imagine a series of anticipated feedback in order for them to present information in their vlogs/blogs and for the content to be more interactive and closer to the human world. The emergence of these modern forms of communication gives us a unique view of the communication model that we know because while it uses a medium and reflects a one-way approach of communicating, it is still intersubjective.


Ong, Walter J. 1982. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London: Methuen, pp. 171-173

The Effectiveness of Orality vs. Literacy When it Comes to Teaching Children

 By: Anjie Gancita and April Magbanua  

        As a culture moves from orality to writing to printing to televising, its ideas of truth move with it. – Neil Postman

Years and years have passed and great changes happened over the course of time. One of these is the evolution of our cultures which have affected our orality and literacy. It can be said that when it comes to teaching children, both orality and literacy can be effecient but orality is more predominant. Teaching children orally is more effective and learning becomes easier for them.

In teaching young children for the first time, it is more advisable to teach them orally since it will be hard for them to understand written texts. They won’t be able to retain and absorb knowledge from these literary mediums as compared to a person imparting information to them. For example, a child learning how to draw will find it easier if someone teaches and demonstrates it to him or her rather than when he or she reads a book about learning how to draw. Children have vast imaginations and when it comes to learning, they would want to go outside of the box and actualize what they are taught. They do not just settle on a fixed reading material.

Learning has to be an intersubjective type of communication, the teacher and the student both have to be in a sender and receiver position at the same time. They both have to exchange experiences and knowledge to learn from one another. Furthermore, they must be able to connect or have a sense of the other person’s thoughts.

Learning should not only be in a chirographic conditioning form since, unlike the oral culture, it regards speech as informational rather than performance oriented. Furthermore, written texts are one-way since there is no real audience when the texts are being written. One can not be able to have communication with its readers and get inside their minds. As a result, the students would struggle in understanding and learning information from written texts.


Ong, W. J. (1982). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. London: Methuen.

Poetry: Performance Art or Written Piece

by Rea Mae S. Solano and Rexelle Bless L. Velasco

Poetry, in general and in its simplest definiton, is a composition that conveys one’s ideas, emotions and experiences in an artistically manner. With this being said, two forms of poetry evolved from their ancient forms and made their way into our hearts and souls today; spoken word poetry and page poetry or written poetry. The difference of the two mentioned above, according to Kijiner (2014) is that, “One is written with the intention of being performed, or spoken aloud, while the other is written specifically for the page.” Spoken word poetry differs in a way that the poet composed his/her piece with the audience in mind, their reaction and engagement. Also, elements of performance such as gesture, facial expression and projection are included to evoke intense emotion from the listeners.

“Page poetry can be quite illusive and difficult to engage with, but spoken word is out, and it’s saying it, and it’s entertaining without shying away from difficult subjects”. This quote from Amy Wragg quite explains why spoken word poetry is intersubjective in nature. It allows people to express their feelings in a more interactive manner. As for the audience, it is way easier to understand the underlying message and emotion based on the delivery of the piece by the performer. Although spoken word poetry like any other poetry uses the aesthetic of rhymes and rhythms, it could be inferred that it is a hybrid of all poems for it allows interaction from one person to another rather than a person to a piece of paper.

Poems in general are characterized by the use of words to create rhythm and rhymes. And the same concept is applicable to spoken word poetry. Only that in this form of poetry it is more than merely the construction of phrases and sentences but more importantly the oral aspect of the performance. These include diction, pronunciation, intonation, tone and the likes. Furthermore, performers also have to make sure that there is a connection between them and the audience leaving no room for open-ended interpretation as compared to to written poetry. Moreover, in spoken word poetry the meaning is understood and their audience would feel the emotions and thoughts that they want to elicit.


Guy, R. (2016). Retrieved August 20, 2018, from. https://rosguy.wordpress.com/2016/06/27/spoken-word-vs-traditional-written-poetry/amp/

Jaccoud, A. (n.d.) What is spoken word. Retrieved from https://www.spoken-word.ch/en/what-is-spoken-word. Retrieved August 20, 2018

Kijiner, K. J. (2014). Spoken word poetry vs page poetry. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/jkijiner.wordpress.com/2014/03/25/spoken-word-poetry-vs-page-poetry/amp/

Mitchell, G. (2016). What is spoken word poetry and why it is so powerful? Retrieved from http://www.ipswichstar.co.uk/what-s-on/what-is-spoken-word-poetry-and-why-is-it-so-powerful-1-4741249